POSTED ON November 20, 2022 1:31 pm
Sukrat Book In Urdu 705
if we accept that the learning of all languages in their entirety is not achievable, even by people who spend their lives in such studies, and we accept that our level of proficiency in any language we use falls short of native-like, we are forced to conclude that what little proficiency we do achieve is largely due to the fact that we are in-the-flesh processing and learning those languages. in this regard, the examples philostratus and posidonios give us hints about the ideal level of learning that can be achieved. philostratus says that, after a lifetime of study, the student may reach a level of proficiency where it may no longer be necessary to study grammar, at least not in a manner comparable to the native. posidonios suggests that mastery of logos and sophia may be sufficient for a professional function, in the sense that they may allow one to acquire native-like proficiency in the language (although in the last part of his work he wonders whether it is better to acquire native-like proficiency in logos and sophia than to be a lawyer or a philosopher, whatever that may mean). since philostratus concludes that it is better to study grammar only when one is the proper age to start studying a language, he may be reflecting on a situation in which philology was not so far advanced as to have reached a point where grammar could be studied without a native speaker, to a comparable degree. even if this was the case, we may still go back to the plot of the tin, where the author makes it clear that he is trying to find out what happened in the past, just as we are interested in the past.
i first encountered ideas of jean piaget and lev s. vygotsky when reading on understanding the psychic life, by graham richards, an engaging biography of donald winnicott that was published after the author had come under piagetand vygotsky influence in the years following the 1960s.
the non-kinetic validity and formalism of l. r. child and the circle controversy was not well known to me until reading on understanding the psychic life, by the author, who also quotes child and groupies with notable aplomb!
the life and death of shelley’s friends is a book about shelley that i found fascinating because of its influence on my thinking about authors and my own development as a poet, despite not having much of a background in the social history of the time when shelley or her friends were active.
although it should be obvious, i take this paragraph to remind the reader to establish the historical veracity of the texts we read. the prevalence of literary fiction can make this crucial. and it is not that we are not grateful for the erudition that has been invested in the creation of these tales, just that a certain willingness to treat some of them as fictional, along with a certain sense of what credibility should be accorded a story claiming to be from the miḥrāb period, ought to be exercised, just as one might exercise skepticism when reading all works of the persian and indian literature. this is an opportunity to explain the treatment of a few of these tales.