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the application of tcrp report 165: transit capacity and quality of service manual, third edition provides guidance on transit capacity and quality of service issues and the factors influencing both. the manual contains background, statistics, and graphics on the various types of public transportation, and it provides a framework for measuring transit availability, comfort, and convenience from the passenger and transit provider points of view. in addition, the manual includes quantitative techniques for calculating the capacity and other operational characteristics of bus, rail, demand-responsive, and ferry transit services, as well as transit stops, stations, and terminals.
manual sample handling is a laborious task and it can be laborious even for well-trained personnel. although several sample types can be handled by automatic aliquoting devices, the handling of biological samples, such as blood samples, is still only partially supported by automated sample handling devices. the main reason is the use of sample tubes, and especially of sbs-formatted tubes. usually, biobanks use tubes with a standard format, but most of them do not allow to open and close the tubes with the help of a robot.
sample collection and processing is often conducted in blood collection centers (centro di riferimento per la protezione dei loro pazienti [crpp]), where phlebotomists perform the sampling procedure and prepare the biological material. this includes opening and processing of blood tubes, washing and separation of blood components, aliquoting and labeling. standard operation procedures (sop) are defined that are used for all procedures that need to be conducted in each biobank for all biobanks in the organization. in order to control that the sops are followed correctly, sops are also provided for automated processes. therefore, a biobank can use a bio-bot from a different company for automated blood collection and sample processing. however, the biobank will still have to validate the bio-bot before the first use.
sample collection and sample processing procedures are the keystone of biobanking. depending on the sample type and the availability of time, either a fresh or a frozen sample is processed. while the former may be collected directly into sample tubes, the latter is usually collected into an ecg-compatible container such as a vacuum tube, plasma tube or edta container. the processing of the samples includes many steps like sample preparation, aliquoting and storage. the aliquoting of the samples is the most critical process step since a sample will be aliquoted several times for various downstream processing procedures. once the samples are aliquoted, the tubes must be closed to protect the samples from degradation by light and to avoid drying out. in the case of frozen samples, an open tube will cause ice crystals to form on the sample, which can then freeze and lyse the sample. the aliquoting of the samples is done manually. therefore, this step needs to be implemented in a highly automated manner to reach the highest possible sample quality.
according to the new din en iso 20387:2018 biobanking general requirements for biobanking, biobanks are now considered as infrastructures for biobanking services. therefore, they need to provide an integrated approach and service that covers all the relevant aspects of biobanking, such as sample acquisition, sample processing, biobanking services and sample archiving. in this context, biobanks have to fulfill a set of general requirements: competence in quality control, impartiality and consistency of biobanking operations, and for sample collection and processing, an evidence-based approach that ensures sample quality and traceability of the sample collection and processing from sample collection to final storage.